The standard advice authorities offer when lightning starts crackling across the sky is for people to take shelter inside buildings. Substantial structures offer protection through lightning rods affixed to the roof, electrical wiring and plumbing that can direct the electricity away from occupants and into the ground.
But what is there to protect the buildings themselves from more than 5 billion Joules of energy in a typical lightning strike, which is enough juice to toast 100,000 bread slices? The problem is no small one—the Empire State Building (above) in New York City gets hit by lightning an average of 25 times a year. And Underwriters Laboratories reports that lightning accounts for more than $1 billion in building damage in the U.S. every year.
Many buildings install lightning protection systems to direct lightning’s energy into the ground, which the Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety says are highly effective at preventing fires and destructive electrical surges after a strike.
Now researchers say there might be a next-generation protective system that prevents lightning from hitting a building at all. Their secret weapon? High-intensity lasers.
Engineers have demonstrated an inexpensive handheld device that can analyze up to 170,000 different molecules in a blood sample. The stapler-sized unit might one day make a doctor’s office checkup a thing of the past.
Measuring minute changes in the intensity of light flashed through a sample, the optical lab-on-a-chip could simultaneously investigate levels of insulin in the blood, viruses and disease markers that indicate cancer or other problems.
"We were looking to build an interface similar to a car’s dashboard, which is able to indicate gas and oil levels as well as let you know if your headlights are on or if your engine is working correctly," said Hatice Altug, an associate engineering professor at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and Boston University, in a statement.